Next to language, money is the most important medium through which modern society communicates. The Federal Reserve is responsible for signaling how fast this money should be created or destroyed via its federal funds interest rate. When demand is high and capacity/supply low, the Fed should ideally make rates low to support growth of loans to boost capacity/supply. When demand is low and capacity/supply high...the opposite. Instead, the Fed is doing the inverse...trying to focus on getting consumers to use more credit/debt (think record low mortgage rates) to create more demand and necessitate higher capacity (think homebuilders).
In a ridiculously difficult chart to decipher below (so I'm told), I highlight the year over year change in working age population (yellow shaded area), year over year change in employees among them (grey shaded area), housing permits (blue line), and the 30 year mortgage rate (white line...driven by the Federal Reserve's federal funds rate and MBS purchasing). The current situation of soaring permits against declining working age population and tanking employees among them...overridden by the speculative fervor created by record low mortgage rates is a case in point.
But in an economy, the production and consumption of goods and services are used to fulfill the wants and needs of those living within it. Very basically, the major driver of economic growth is the growth of that population of consumers, their income, savings, and access to credit. If that population is growing at 1.5% annually then you can add an additional 1.5%+ growth for maintaining &/or building out greater production, supply chain, housing, infrastructure, etc to support that larger consumer base. This essentially gets us to a 3% growth in GDP.
So what is happening when there is little, no, or negative population (consumer) growth but GDP growth is still being targeted at 1.5% or 3% or (as in China's case) 6%? What the Fed is trying to do is get a zero population growth (trending to declining population) economy to "grow" via cheaper debt, more debt, and serial bubble blowing. If I was a PhD at the Fed, I'm pretty sure I'd make it sound more complicated and mysterious...but I'm not and it isn't.
Anyway, couple of interesting factoids I thought I'd put out today that may be tangentially of interest. If Brookings Institute (and many others) are correct in their research that 2021 births are likely to decline somewhere between 300k-500k due to the pandemic...2021 births will essentially be back at the same total number of births as 1921...exactly 100 years ago, in the wake of the influenza pandemic (chart below).