A quick backstory of Japan is too instructive and telling...not to tell. Because the story of Japan is really soon to be the story of nearly all the developed world. Know Japan; know thyself.
To begin, the rise, peak, and ongoing fall of Japan's working age population of 15-64 year olds and employment among them (below). Note the Bank of Japan (BoJ) interest rate policy went down as population growth decelerated and then hit zero when population growth (consumer demand) peaked...and rates have remained at zero ever since, going on twenty-five years now.