There are two types of US Federal debt issued by the US Treasury to pay for what America's POTUS & Congress deem "we" want now but are unwilling to tax ourselves to pay for. These are (1) US public debt (also known as "Marketable debt" since these bonds are traded in the open market) and (2) intra-governmental debt or the debt that the Social Security surplus and like programs are mandated by law to "reinvest" the surplus into until it is needed. The chart below shows the progression of the two since 1981.
What you may notice is the sharp upturn in the public debt since 2008 and the deceleration beginning to take place in intra-governmental debt as sources of surplus revenue are drying up and will be turning to outright deficits over the next decade. Simply said, 100%+ of all US debt issued from here forward will be marketable debt.
The primary driver of the Intra-governmental bond buying...the OASDI (Old Age and Survivors Disability Insurance trust fund) or more commonly known as Social Security surplus. Below, the blue columns are the annual US Treasury debt purchases and the red line the total holdings of US debt via the SS trust fund. Total holdings will be declining as boomers retire en masse and begin drawing on these "reserves". In short, the governmental buybacks of US debt that soaked up 45% of all Treasury issuance up until 2008 are rolling over and likely turn to net selling over the next decade.
The annual OASDI surplus (red columns) peaked in 2007 but will run annual deficits indefinitely from here on (below). This is due to the decelerating annual growth of the 25-64yr/old population (blue line) and swelling 65+yr/old population (grey line). The impact of the collapse of the growth among the working age population and swelling elderly population means not only will intra-governmental trust fund not buy Treasury's but greater marketable Treasury issuance will be necessary to cover the shortfall.
The chart below shows Treasury marketable debt vs. the Federal Funds interest rate (quarterly)...I'm already assuming the Fed hikes to 1% this December. Also, in the boxes the change in marketable debt per interest rate cycle vs. full time jobs creation (net) per cycle...the sharp acceleration of marketable debt and the deceleration of full time jobs creation is very apparent. The decelerating growth in jobs vs. the surging debt is rather important as it's only through more jobs that a larger economy and tax base is created that is hopefully sufficient to pay back the debt (LOL) or more likely simply service the ever larger debt load. Absent the growth in jobs and tax base, the only other option to constrain the debt service is to lower the Federal Funds rate (think NIRP or negative interest rates wherein the largest corporations are paid to take loans and the government pays itself to issue new debt and banks charge savers to hold their money).
Marketable Treasury Debt as of December 1, 2016...$14.4 trillion
- 1776-->2007 +$5 trillion (35% of current total)
- 2008-->2016 +$9.4 trillion (65% of current total created in the last nine years).
- The Obama administration and Congress during his 2 terms are presently responsible for creating 56% of all US marketable debt...and will likely be 57% by Trump's inauguration.
The chart below highlights annual GDP minus the annual growth in federal debt to achieve that "GDP growth". Plainly, GDP is contracting absent the surging growth in federal debt. Against this backdrop, the Fed will raise? The last eight years were abysmal and 2016 the third worst year in history (this even assumes Q4 GDP comes in at a relatively strong 2.5%).
However, the make-up of that growth (above) has dramatically reversed itself. Regardless who was selected as president, over the coming eight years, 80% of the net population growth will come from 65+yr/olds vs. a maximum (during Clinton's term) of 85% coming from the working age population.
By the way, since a minor FFR increase during President Eisenhower's term, Federal Funds Rates have been raised during every Democrats presidency and lowered during every Republicans term (on a net basis). Interesting that the Federal Reserve has acted to slow economic activity during all Democrats terms and goosed activity during all Republicans terms. This may be as much to do with the make-up of Congress and general economic cycle timing as the presidents party affiliation, but I'm simply noting R's have been in office when the interest rate tailwinds have blown...and D's faced interest rate headwinds. The chart below shows the changing FFR's and Federal debt per presidency.
Finally, the corruption of modern day economics from a knowledge based study of production, consumption, and transfer of wealth to a lapdog of power is as plain as simple arithmetic...the 0-65yr/old population of the nations that consume 70% of the earths oil (and nearly all other commodities and exports in general) peaked in 2016 and will be declining for decades. The 0-45yr/old global population (ex-Africa) of the nations that consume 96% of the earths oil has likewise peaked...will flat-line for a decade before it likewise begins its imminent and long decline. All details are HERE and HERE. This is what is known as shifting from a "growing pie" of consumers to a "shrinking pie". How "PhD economists", governmental leaders, Wall Street, the Federal Reserve etc. have missed this small detail boggles the mind. That a nobody from nowhere is detailing what is all publicly available data and detailing the reality we face is telling about economics, the media, and government.
Anyway, anyone betting rates will rise over the course of Trump's presidency is betting against the house...and by hook or by crook, the house always wins.