Global growth is like a three legged stool increasingly missing all three legs. Population increases are declining, GDP growth declining, and private credit growth declining. In the absence of these, the final source of "growth" is government debt (deficit spending plus monetization whose principal is never intended to be repaid, interest costs never remotely borne) being substituted to prop up declining demand.
This article will attempt to gauge future organic global demand vs. how much more synthetic government debt and monetization will be necessary to maintain centrally determined "growth". Ideally one would multiply estimated population change by est. changing GDP per capita by est. change in credit, each by nation. The real wild card is change in credit...so I'm leaving it out but I'll discuss this later. Still, with population change multiplied by GDP "purchasing power" per capita, one should have a good gauge to understand global growth and consumption for (like I-phones, TV's, cars, etc. etc.) plus commodities from which all those are made.
Methodology? Take the 12 largest nations on earth (counting the EU as a nation...work with me) and this represents 4.5 billion of earths 7.3 billion inhabitants...or nearly 2/3rds earths inhabitants. Utilize the OECD estimations of nations future population changes and multiply them by nations projected GDP on a per capita basis. Focus on the changing 15-64yr/old segment as this segment represents nations working and consuming core.
Only two variables here, GDP per capita (how much does the "average" person have to spend) and what is the change in core populations. Multiply that and you have a dollar figure each nations changing population has to spend in the global commodities market (aka, purchasing power) for oil, steel, wheat, etc. and likewise consumer goods.
First chart shows GDP per capita (blue) and population gains by nation (brown). Hard to miss India as the population growth engine with +13 million 15-64yr/olds annually and conversely Japan's core shrinking by nearly a million annually, closely followed by declines in the EU and Russia. As for GDP per capita, or what can roughly be seen as purchasing power, the US has the greatest capacity while Bangladesh is on the opposite end of the scale at $3k per capita...or it takes about 18 Bangladesh citizens to equal the purchasing power of one American.
For those interested in seeing what exactly these changing populations are estimated to look like over the last and next 40yrs...check the link.
The charts below are comparative snapshots of nations annual "consumption power" over time. It's not hard to see that from a growth perspective, China's day has come and gone...and India's time has come...but the US growth coupled with it's population growth mean it remains a growth engine...entirely premised on the US maintaining immigration policies favorable to legal and illegals alike.
The chart below shows purchasing power change in constant 2015 dollars solely changing the populations (edit - 2015 total should be $148 billion rather than $128 billion).
The chart below shows purchasing power change in variable GDP plus changing populations.
Regardless constant or variable GDP (per capita purchasing power), demand continues to decline and, with it, growth.
As for credit, it continues growing far faster globally than economic activity it provides (GDP).
A quick look at the four sources of the global debt in the chart below; Household, Government, Corporate, and Financial. No net deleveraging among any of the four sources of debt.
But let’s compare and contrast the rate of the growth in debt, both in dollar terms and percentage terms. The chart below shows that global debt grew 63% from '00-'07 but the rate of growth slowed to 40% over most recent 7 year period...in dollar terms the debt growth was almost identical over the two periods.
- Government debt (below) grew in both periods but, not surprisingly, ramped up after 2008 (both in total and as a percentage).SOURCE: Haver Analytics; national sources; World economic outlook, IMF; BIS, McKenzie Global Institute analysis
- Corporate debt grew evenly in percentage terms over both periods (below).
- But household and financial sources pace of debt growth slowed dramatically both as a percentage and in dollar terms from the earlier to the latter periods (charts below).
- $25 trillion in global government debt was driven by a hike of $19 trillion in advanced economy government debt.
- $18 trillion in global corporate debt was taken on in massive bond sales and loans taking advantage of record low yields and rolling (refinancing) existing debt to ever lower rates.
- $7 trillion in global household debt may have (net-net) been entirely due to China’s housing bubble creation of over $21 trillion in new Chinese debt…roughly half of which was attributable housing. The US, UK / Ireland, Spain and select other recent real estate boom / bust patients saw declining mortgage debt creation and consumer deleveraging.
- $8 trillion in global finance